2023-09-28 biuro@iclouders.pl Comments Off



Haylage, silage or ensiling of green plants was discovered and invented in the 19th century. Using the same technique for ensiling cabbage, German farmers began preserving green fodder for animals.  The publication of a book by a French farmer who described in it his experiments with preserving green fodder in silos brought further publicity and popularity to this method of producing food for livestock. The silage as we know it today, which is preserved with acid and prevents contact with the air, was invented by Finnish scientist and chemistry professor Artturi Ilmari Virtanen, who was even awarded the Nobel Prize for his research in agricultural and nutritional chemistry, particularly for his method of preserving forage.

Today, silage is usually made from grass crops, including maize or alfalfa or other cereals, using the whole green plant (not just the grain).

Ensiling takes place in heaps, silos (sleeves) and plastic-wrapped bales.

The ensiling process begins with proper preparation of grasses or other plants, i.e. with drying of the ensiled mass, as the raw material in bales should be neither too dry nor too wet. The dry matter content in the so-called haylage should be between 35 and 50%, because then there is a high concentration of sugars necessary for ensiling and optimal conditions for the production of lactic acid. Ensiling material that is too dry (more than 50% dry matter) can cause difficulty in compaction, resulting in mould.


Then there is the question of the method of ensiling, whether to choose bales or heaps (silos)?

Certainly, the big advantage of silos (sleeves) is the reduced use of film and fuel, which translates into some savings and is particularly cost-effective for big farms. It works well on natural meadows with varying grass quality, and gives the opportunity to mix different qualities of grass and alfalfa.

The downside of silos is the time-consuming nature of the harvesting process, which takes 2 to 3 days continuously. This method is also more dependent on weather conditions during the harvesting and compaction of the green matter. In addition, farmers have to assume some nutrient losses when using heaps, which can happen during pressing, e.g. contamination of the material with soil from the wheels of the farm tractor. In addition, due to the slow rate of haylage removal, there is a greater risk of mould.

Undoubtedly, bales work better on smaller farms, where there is no storage base in the form of silos. They are also less dependent on weather conditions, although of course farmers are well aware that bales should not be wrapped in plastic during rain or even drizzle, as the layers of plastic may lose their adhesion. Bales also offer the possibility of harvesting at different times and the possibility of dividing the haylage depending on the type of crop or swathing date. There is a faster ensiling process in bales and the haylage itself is less prone to loss as it does not require opening the silo during feeding and exposing the large mass to spoilage. Disadvantages of using bales include the higher cost of buying film and then the problem of disposing of it, as well as higher fuel consumption when transporting it. Bales are often subject to damage during transport or storage. The disadvantages of using bales include the higher cost of purchasing film and the subsequent problem of disposal, as well as the higher fuel consumption during transport. Bales are often subjected to damage during transport or storage.

Various types of biological-enzymatic ensilage can be used for preserving the mass both in heaps and bales. These improve the ensiling processes of the harvested mass, so that voluminous fodder of the highest quality can be obtained.

 Each farmer deciding on the method of collecting and storage of haylage must therefore make a cost calculation and adjust the technology to the size of the farm or the number of cattle. Each method therefore has its supporters ���.

Of course, FOLGOS, as a producer of high-quality, ecological silage film, encourages you to purchase ecoAGRO film (attractive prices) and to contact regarding the disposal of used film.


For more information on silage itself and ensiling methods, please search the sources below:


Silage – Wikipedia

Sianokiszonka – wszystko co warto o niej wiedzieć – Rolno-ogrodniczy.pl

Sianokiszonka w pryzmach czy balotach, wady i zalety. – GRUPA AGROCENTRUM